6X Simulator Overview
Ridgeway Kite’s 6X is a new generation reservoir simulator built for today’s demanding engineering workflows. It includes a full set of capabilities for modeling both Conventional and Unconventional reservoirs either in black oil or compositional modes.
6X delivers a focused approach to reservoir simulation that has been identified from a comprehensive and informed review of industry needs. This has resulted in the development of unique capabilities and workflows. The simulator was developed with a Compositional formulation with full support for Black-oil models
Users can rapidly get up to speed and become productive with the simulator because of the adoption of familiar Eclipse* keyword nomenclature and format files (unified summary and restart files) which can also help when migrating existing models to 6X.
A flexible advanced Scripting has been developed to enable users to add calculations, automate tasks at time steps, bringing in data and customize reports. 6X has unique html and Excel output for summary vectors and Multiple Realization runs to give engineers the ability to use the results in other applications, or to rapidly incorporate results into reports.
The simulator has been created with massively parallel systems in mind from day one, on a new software architecture that delivers a high degree of portability. Ridgeway Kite recognizes that speed is not everything, however it is a basic requirement for today’s demanding engineering workflows modeling increased detail with more variables, to achieve greater sensitivity. Portability, robustness, reliability and consistent results regardless of platform all go hand in hand with speed as necessary fundamentals for a modern simulator.
Chart comparing the dramatically improved performance of a GPU, to a single and multiple CPU’s. All the features developed in 6X exploit its massively parallel architecture, and include: Multiple Realizations; Unconventionals; Coarsening workflow; Kriging; Discretized wells; Scripting
6X increases operational flexibility by running on a variety of hardware platforms: CPUs (Intel & IBM Power), GPUs, MICs on clusters, workstations and PCs.
Black-oil & Compositional
6X was developed with a Compositional formulation from its inception. 6X enables Black-oil models to be run via this formulation together with the abilities to:
- Offer an Extended Black-oil model – a set of consistent Black-oil PVT properties are calculated from the EOS (Equation of State) data and model within the simulator. This enables users to obtain results much faster.
- Switch between Black-oil and Compositional For example, this functionality has been used in Unconventionals when modelling the fracturing period as Black-oil, then switching to Compositional for the EOR (Gas Injection) period. Again, this enables users to get results quicker by reducing the need to run the whole model in Compositional mode.
The fully integrated Multiple Realization capability provides built in support for sensitivities, experimental design, history matching, development optimization, forecasting, and optimization for uncertainty. At Ridgeway Kite we recognize that speed can improve productivity where it supports multi-realizations workflows that can provide increased sensitivity.
The results from an optimization of production of fluids from multiple simulations showing a reduction in the mis-match of the objective function.
The simulator, 6X, has unique capability as a decision support tool for development planning in Unconventional resources. 6X implicitly models the stress, energy and performance from fracing operations to address questions around well spacing, completion design, and tool selection. This allows engineers to evaluate the number and length of stages, the number of perforations, and the injection schedule. Uniquely, the simulator incorporates the Geomechanics of the reservoir to determine the shape, extent, and conductive properties of each fracture stage on each well, and the effect that the fracturing has on existing nearby wells. Dual Porosity and Permeability is a fundamental capability within the simulator to support the complex characteristics of fractures within the reservoirs
6X is used to support the following decisions:
- Number of wells per DSU,
- Well landing
- Vertical and horizontal well placement (spacing, staggering)
- Define the number, type and size of the hydraulic fracture stages,
- Sequence of fracture treatments in pad completions (zippering)
- Placement of infill wells in areas of depletion (infill/offset relationship)
- Implementation of EOR (Feasibility, pilot design, and evaluation, full-field development)
6X models the life cycle of multi-well sections. This starts with the fracturing of the first well, through to the end of production of the last well, accounting for fracture generation, closure and well interference. Calibrated models can be used to investigate the effects of well spacing, well timing, stage length, cluster spacing, job size and infill well location and design.
For horizontal wells and well test workflows 6X provides a facility for discretized wells to more accurately define the changing reservoir characteristics along the well path. The engineer can define the well path with as many cells as are needed.
Grid Coarsening and Refinement
6X has a number of tools for both global and nested coarsening. This is a very simple and efficient approach that enables the user to coarsen/refine either a sector or the entire model to facilitate upscaling while retaining the key geometric characteristics.
Examples of 6X grids that have been coarsened on a 2×2 basis aerially