6X enables engineers to explore many workflows in both the Unconventional and Conventional domains. Examples detailed below specific to Unconventionals are:
- Model Calibration
- Completion Design Optimization
- Well Spacing Optimization
- EOR – Enhanced Oil Recovery
Examples of solutions which incorporate Multiple Realizations and can be applied to Conventional and Unconventional models are:
- Well Spacing Optimization under Uncertainty
Solutions for UNCONVENTIONALS
6X is most commonly used to calibrate multi-well sections. With the ability to create both tensile and shear rock breakage during the fracturing process (by modelling the pumping schedule), 6X can match fracture hits (caused by hydraulically fracturing new wells) seen in the oldest well.
The figure shows a match of the observed pressure, water rate, oil rate, liquid rate, gas rate & GOR at the parent well with the simulated response from a 6X model.
The red arrows indicate a fracture hit from a newer well with the simulation model matching the observed data.
Completion Design Optimization
By detailed modelling of the Hydraulic Fracturing Pumping Schedule and calibration of the parent well, 6X enables the user to investigate alternative completion strategies in new wells – by changing many parameters such as, number of stages, number of clusters, injection rate, injection volume, etc. enabling the user to determine the shape and size of the generated SRV.
Click on the movie to see the evolution of the SRV as each stage is fractured.
Well Spacing Optimization
In Unconventionals, an important aspect is where and when to place new (Child) wells. This can easily be achieved by using 6X to model different scenarios.
In this image we can see the interference caused to the parent well while hydraulically fracturing the child well. The property displayed is water saturation, filtered on a low value. High saturation is in blue.
The parent well
The child well
The 6X Multiple Realization capability can give the user the ability to optimize the well spacing by enabling Sensitivities or a full optimization through the Development Optimization capability.
Infill Wells – The full impact of the placement of infill wells can also be investigated.
EOR – Enhanced Oil Recovery
6X has been used to model Gas Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery.
For EOR studies, 6X can model multiple wells, with multiple Huff n’ Puff cycles in either extended black oil mode or, if required, in fully compositional mode.
An image showing the results of gas injection in a multi-well pilot. The gas (red) accumulations can be seen in multiple connected wells.
The image shows the gas injection schedule from one compressor over a number of wells.
6X has been used to optimize the size of compressors and assess different gas injection schedules between the wells.
By enabling the Geomechanics feature, 6X can show the impact of refracturing a depleted well.
In blue we can see the increase in stress as each stage of a new well is fractured
An image showing the change in stress as each stage is fractured in an existing depleted well.
The plot illustrates the impact and the benefit of re-fracturing.